Node, npm and Express

Posted by Graham Wheeler on Monday, October 26, 2015

Things have been slow on the blogging front but there has been progress on the Zite replacement. I’ll write more about that soon but part of what I have been doing is looking into what server-side technology to use.

As far as a database goes, this seems like a no-brainer. I’m dealing with JSON documents that I can either spend some effort on normalizing to put into a SQL database, or simply keep them as is and put them in a database that supports that form, and the obvious choice then is MongoDB, which uses a binary form of JSON.

As for what to use to handle network requests, there I am torn between Tornado (which is Python) and Node.js (Javascript). I’m not a big fan of Javascript (despite having implemented Javascript compilers and virtual machines twice in my life!), primarily because it relies too much on sneaky tricks to do things like encapsulation and OOP, but it certainly is the closest to a first-class language for MongoDB, so I’m doing the investigation. I’ve had a small amount of exposure to Node.js at work but mostly as a user, not developer, so what follows are some of my initial notes on the topic of Node.js, the npm package manager, and the Express web framework. I hope you find them useful if these are new to you.


Node is a version of Chrome’s v8 Javascript engine which includes a set of useful packages for server-side code (event-driven networking, file system etc) and a package manager, npm. Node was motivated by the need to handle large numbers of simultaneous sockets for HTTP long polling and web sockets; using separate threads or processes for each socket is too costly in resources (especially memory). Instead it uses the JS event loop and closure callbacks to scale efficiently. The underlying non-blocking socket code is written in C and wrapped in JS.


CommonJS is a suite of standardized APIs for using Javascript on the server, addresses namespacing among other things. For the latter it includes three key components:

  • require() method used to load a module
  • exports object to expose code
  • module object

Each module is a single JS file with isolated scope overridden by the exports object. E.g. consider a file hello.js:

var message = 'Hello';
exports.sayHello = function() {

which can then be used like:

var hello = require('./hello');

Alternatively we could have written:

module.exports = function() {

and used:

var hello = require('./hello');

Node core modules

Core modules are compiled into the node binary, and include ‘fs’ for file system access, and ‘http’ for network support. They still need to be loaded with require(). See for more about the core modules.

npm - The node package manager

npm can install packages and their dependencies locally (in ./node_modules) or globally with the -g option (in /usr/local/lib/node_modules). You would typically install common build tools like grunt globally, and dependencies for a project locally.

Note that dependencies are not installed at the top-level but within the package directory. So if you do ’npm install express’ then express’s dependencies will be installed in ./node_modules/express/node_modules directory.

You can specify package@version if you need a specific version. See https://github/com/isaacs/node-semver for details on semantic versioning names.

Use ’npm uninstall’ to remove a package (include -g for global packages), and ’npm update’ to update a package.

For multiple packages use a package.json file, with (at least) “name”, “version” and “dependencies” entries. Use “npm init” to create a skeleton package.json. Then use “npm install”/“npm update” to install/update all dependencies specified in the file. You can use “npm install —save” to install a new package and add it to package.json at the same time.

To use modules, use require(). If you just specify a name, node will first look in the core modules folder, then the node_modules/module folder. Alternatively you can specify an absolute or relative path (the .js extension is not needed). You can load an entire folder with a single require() if that folder has a package.json file (the “main” module will be returned from require()).

The Connect module

The Connect module builds on top of the http module, and allows the chaining of request handlers (e.g. for logging, static file handling, etc). Each handler has three arguments:

  • req - the request object
  • res - the response object
  • next - the next handler in the chain

Here is a simple server:

var connect = require('connect');
var app = connect();

var logger = function(req, res, next) {
    console.log(req.method, req.url);
    next();  // chain to next handler
var helloWorld = function(req, res, next) {
    res.setHeader('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
    res.end('Hello world!');  // send the response body, no next chaining

// order is important when registering handlers

// If we wanted the response to only work when user navigates to
// path /hello, we could have used:
//  app.use('/hello', helloWorld);

module.exports = app;  // optional, but useful to load module for tests

If this is in a file server.js, we can run it with ’node server’ and access it at http://localhost:8000

Express web framework

Express is a node web framework built on top of Connect. Here is the same server as before written using Express:

var express = require('express');
var app = express();

app.use(function(req, res, next) {
   console.log(req.method, req.url);
   next();  // chain to next handler

// We can use app.use or specify a verb like get or post...
app.get('/hello', function(req, res) {
    // res.send will set Content-Type automatically, but you can 
    // force JSON with res.json(). You can include an initial optional
    // first argument for the status code.
    res.send('Hello world!'); 
module.exports = app;

Request objects have methods to retrieve parameters, POST bodies, cookies, etc, while the response objects have methods to set the status code, cookies, headers, and do redirects.